273-291,  Raftopulos, Brian, “The Zimbabwean Crisis and the Challenges for the Left, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. Statistics showed that only 20 % of those displaced had temporarily moved to rural areas and many others were living by roads or moved into churches (280). In an expected reaction, the European settler-farmers appealed to the High Court to get the war veterans evicted under trespass and squatter laws (The Herald, March 18 2000 p.1) and on March 17 2000, Justice Paddington Garwe issued High Court Orders for the eviction of the war veterans from the now more than 400 invaded farms within 24 hours. The Tribunal held that the Zimbabwe government violated the organisation’s treaty by denying access to the courts and engaging in racial discrimination against white farmers whose farms had been confiscated under the land reform programme in Zimbabwe. Indeed, he argues that inequality is basis of famines and other severe crises. Indeed, because the government has managed to encourage private real estate companies to be involved in this process, the population gets a lot of benefits and this creates new economic opportunities for the population. III. However, in case of Zimbabwe, none of these methods were used during the process of urban reforming. In most cases, these policies were established to punish areas where MDC had a lot of supporters. probably it is the reason that you don’t rank high in google. The other alternative by which the acquisition could be legally done was, of course, through the introduction of a completely new Zimbabwe Constitution and, that became the alternative the Government preferred. Thanks for the advice. (Moyo p.150) (The Herald, March 20 2000 p.1). In his freedom and development theory, he proposes that the only way to attain freedom is through development. I dream about a self-reliant Africa whose financial freedom is unshakeable. This is because through education, the population understands why the city needs to be modernized: attracting foreign businesses and investors for the stable development of the country. The compensation agreement signed in July agreed a total amount of US$3.5 billion to pay for ‘improvements’ to the land that was expropriated. This shows that were land was acquired not for the aforementioned reasons, the complaint was supposed to receive compensation and had the right to appeal to the High Court. The current crisis that Zimbabwe is experiencing has devastated the livelihoods of its urban population and created extreme poverty in its towns. The most recent initiative, the fast track land reform programme (FTLRP), was … The new Constitution alternative and the 2000 Referendum (Stiff, 2000: 310) Therefore, during the restoring of order in 2005, people should have fairly been compensated for their property in order to avoid tragedies in the aftermaths. Change ). While pointing out that it was the European settler-farmers who had influenced their workers to vote against the Draft Constitution which contained clauses on compulsory land acquisition (even ferrying their farm workers and domestic workers to the polling stations with specific instructions to vote against the Draft Constitution), President Mugabe directed that the war veterans should remain on the occupied European settler-farms, ‘as long as they (were) peaceful’. What the Zimbabwean government learnt from its own experience is that in an agriculturally based economy no development programme will succeed if people … Land reform in Zimbabwe is the greatest flop in the world but a success in the eyes of ZANU (Pfutseki).It has been very random and ethnic. Indeed, I will suggest a comparative approach of confronting this issue using the example of Rwanda where the similar policy seems to have worked. Robert Mugabe was displaced as president partly by pressure from the war veterans, who he led to victory in Zimbabwe’s independence struggle. Land Reform in the Twenty Years After Independence. Let me look up. This land was redistributed to about 50,000 households. To a large extent, the unemployed youth phenomenon effectively turned the vote against the Draft Constitution. Potts briefly discussed Zimbabwean economic history where she acknowledges Zimbabwe as one of the most economically stable countries in sub-Saharan Africa with only 25 to 30 % of people below the poverty line in the early 1990s. I love traveling across Africa, exploring the beauty of our continent and learning about how to make it in Africa. In fact, many developing countries in Africa are trying to build and transform their cities into modern cities. 4. Jambanja: The ‘Fast Track’ Land This policy was a major reason that led to unchanged land situation in post-independence Zimbabwe. Of interest is the fact that of the 697 754 ‘No’ votes, 405 243 were cast in the main cities of Harare, Bulawayo, Gweru, Mutare, Masvingo, Chinhoyi, Chegutu, Kadoma and Kwekwe where a high number of unemployed youths and domestic workers were easily mobilised by European settler-employers. Zimbabwe agrarian reform brought about the stand-off between the once darlings in international trade and investments. On the other hand, the failure encouraged European settler-farmers to resist the Zimbabwe Government. However, by 2003, statistics shows that 51 % of the Zimbabweans are below the poverty line and 57% of urban population in the HDAs is extremely poor without access to clean water and electricity as well as the cost of urban health and education services become extremely expensive (Potts, 274). For example, HIV/AIDS patients were left sleeping outside or forced to move to rural areas and abandon their medicines since doctors could not followed them up (278). Indeed, the GDP per capita dropped by 40%, agricultural output dropped by 51% and industrial production dropped by 47% (Potts, 287). Operation Murambatsvina and the Urban Crisis in Zimbabwe, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. The decline in agricultural production played a central role in the damaging land reform of the early 2000s, due to agriculture’s large share contribution to Zimbabwe’s GDP and employment. Zimbabwe government for the purpose of land redistribution1. In 1997 the government published a list of 1471 farms that were to be expropriated and resettled. Land reform, sanctions, regime change, and sovereignty ... Zimbabwe’s own history (the major reason why Zimbabwe came into being through a bitter war was because of the majority of the nation being denied access to the ballot) and is the fundamental political Moreoever, land distributions displaced approximately one million farm workers and their families (217). High Court eviction order versus the Executive I just want to avoid duplicates so that my site ranks up as it deserves. I really appreciate it. The true position is that dsanctions were imposed by the EU when the head of the last European Union observer mission, Pierre Schori, was thrown out of Zimbabwe in 2002 on the eve of presidential elections that were condemned as flawed. The High Court Orders were directly issued to the Police Commissioner Augustine Chihuri and his officers and they stipulated that all those served with the Orders (Mashonaland Central Governor Cde Border Gezi and the Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association leader, Dr Chenjerai Hunzvi) should ‘disregard any executive instructions that they (might) receive from any person holding such powers in Zimbabwe’. “What is on the table here is not the state is going to nationalise all land and have all control of the land – quite contrary to what happened in the land reform programme in Zimbabwe.” Instead, Mabasa said that notice will be given to landowners in advance and the state has to give reasons … It demanded that the UK provide funding for the endeavour. The root causes of the crisis which led to the Fast Track Land Reform Programme from April 2000 up until 2010 lay in the failure of the 1998 Donors Conference to assist the Zimbabwe Land Reform Programme; the British Government’s insistence on the willing-buyer-willing-seller principle of Land Reform, which defied Zimbabwe’s legal framework of compulsory land acquisition (Matondi-Hungwe p.72), as well as the rejection of the Draft C onstitution during the referendum. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. According to Sen, in order to achieve of development; there must be the removal of the following: poverty, tyranny, and lack of economic opportunities, social deprivation, neglect of public services, and the machinery of repression. The Draft Constitution was consequently rejected during referendum. I don’t want to generate articles though. Zimbabwe provides a compelling case study of the perils of ignoring the rule of law and property rights when implementing land reforms. The peasants began occupying white settler-farms in a countrywide ‘jambanja’ or ‘invasion’. (The Herald, March 17 2000 p.1) According to Sen, any kind of development plan should be implemented in the way that reduces poverty by creating more economic opportunities as well as involving some kind of negotiation and collaboration with the population. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. I speak 3 languages. BACKGROUND. After that, a "willing buyer, willing seller" principle came into effect with Britain to fund the buying of white-owned farms. While many could ask what went wrong with the land distribution in Zimbabwe, the freedom and development theory of Sen provides a perfect understanding of the Zimbabwean tragedy. At the beginning in the 1990s, when people were moved into towns of Harare, the capital city, the government did not stop the migration or ban the construction of illegal houses and illegal jobs, which means it wasn’t people’s fault. They started selling their farming equipment since most of them were subsistence farmers and the agricultural production reduced significantly (Potts, 214). This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. In many occasions, people are given choice of where they can build their new houses compatible to their economy or they can choose other selected places as long as it matches what they can afford (Ilberg, 5). This early land reform produced a rather feudal form of politics based on racial and class discrimination imposed on the African population by the British government and white Rhodesians.5 Also, tribal traditions present no form of property rights as understood by Western culture. There you have it. In the early 1980s land, was acquired by the government and a wide range of infrastructure and support services were provided to the schemes. People ended up losing their shelters and jobs, which created extreme levels of poverty and lots of health issues. Moreover, Mnangagwa’s focus on land reform is the right approach with regards to its agricultural sector. Hence, Zimbabwe is not a preferred recipient of funds from Western financial institutions.  Potts, Deborah, “’Restoring Order’? View more posts, Hello. The RBZ report on land reform of 2006 indicates that from 2001 financial assistance from the World Bank,IMF and AfDB were suspended and the US through ZIDERA committed itself to vote against any lines of credit towards Zimbabwe. Consequently a post-Lancaster House Zimbabwe Constitution draft was put together and put to a referendum in 2000. The ‘Yes’ votes totalled 578 210 or 46 percent of the total vote cast. The politics of land reform. Some very credible research has shown that land reform has improved food production and food security for smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. The truth however is much more complex. Other donor organisations, including the World Bank, USAID, Overseas Development Institute and the European Union (EU) also showed great interest in supporting the land reform. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. An Africa that consumes what It produces & produces what it consumes. Unlike Zimbabwe, the process of expropriation in Rwanda is done in ways that provide fair compensation to the displaced population. However, there seem to be multiple positions on However, by March 1 2000, the invasions had risen to 48 farms and then to more than 386 by March 8 2000. These assertions explain why this policy worsened the situations instead of solving problems it was supposed to encounter. From 2005, the city adopted the “Kigali master plan”, which is a planning scheme to transform Kigali into a modern technological city. Such benefits may include eradicating food insecurity and alleviating rural poverty. Decades of human rights abuses and impunity have diminished political participation by citizens and civil society, and shaped a risk averse and fearful citizenry. Despite extensive financial assistance from the UK, the first phase of Zimbabwe's land reform programme was widely regarded as unsuccessful. His theory states that the purpose of development should be to sustain growth. However, they blindly destroyed people’s jobs without setting up strategies to compensate their jobs. Clearly, Sen would criticize the Zimbabwean policy makers since they claimed to establish development by increasing poverty and diminishing the opportunities to the majority. Justice Garwe further gave orders to the CFU to announce the eviction orders on radio for three consecutive days. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. (The Herald, March 1 2000 p.1). 203-219. You have entered an incorrect email address! (The Herald, March 18 2000, p.1) In 2000, a large amount of land owned by the minority of white commercial farmers was settled to approximately hundreds of thousands of black Zimbabweans who lacked experience and professionalism in farming. In Zimbabwe, land reform was absolutely necessary to address past land injustices, but Mugabe's land reform was simply exploiting the necessity of land reform for purely selfish gain. They even began a series of legal challenges to the Government on land acquisition, especially in respect of 804 farms out of 1 471 farms previously designated and gazetted in 1997. (Stiff, 2000: p.308) ( Log Out / Didier Champion is a Rwandan blogger. Therefore, once people are moved, they could find new places, which facilitated the expropriation into a smooth process. This in effect was the beginning of Zimbabwe’s land problem. There is a tool that generates articles like human, just search in google: miftolo’s tools. Ultimately a deal was struck that the new government would not embark on any land reforms in the first decade in power. From the 1980s, housing policies had made it extremely difficult and expensive for low-income residents to comply with the nation’s legal housing requirements. As internal discontent increased, and external funding for land reform dried up, Mugabe threatened to expropriate white-owned farmland without compensation. This means that the city has to move people in order to make sure that all the construction follows the master plan. By focusing on showing how this policy has affected the economy of Zimbabwe and how unjust this policy was implemented and executed in the situation of Zimbabwe, I discuss how lack of collaboration/cooperation between urban low-income people and policy makers can be a dangerous act especially when enforcing policies of planning in urban areas. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp. The voter turnout was a very low 26 percent of the registered voters, i.e. In 2005, the government implemented “Operation Murambatsvina (‘Restoring Order ’)” in order to eradicate “illegal” housing and informal jobs that negatively affected many poor urban residents and the country in general. Indeed, those who are misplaced by the city’s policy are expropriated and compensated fairly. 5 000 000 registered voters.  Ilberg, Antje, Technical Advisor for German Development Service (DED) at Kigali City, June 2005 – February 2008, Introduction beyond Paper Policies: Planning Practice in Kigali. I am always encouraged by the African Youth with same dreams and aspirations. The land issue almost derailed the negotiations with Britain that led to the birth of Zimbabwe in 1980. The land reform story is a ZANU PF invention! I love telling stories and writing about Rwanda. As a result of the government’s fast-track land reform programme, spearheaded by veterans of the country’s Liberation War, the plight of the white farmers in Zimbabwe became international headline news. Indeed, Sen would also claim that this so called order was unjust and biased because the government didn’t negotiate with its people in order to reach some kind of agreements. Learn how your comment data is processed. (The Herald, March 11 2000 p.1) In order to deal effectively with this land reform policy and expropriation, policy makers need to establish strategies to fairly compensate those who are misplaced in order to increase opportunities and maintain development of the people. The Zimbabwean government began its land reforms in the 1980s to address the imbalances in land access ownership and use that had existed in the country before independence. Before the restoring order, the government knew that 85 % of city households in HDAs (High density areas) were living off of informal jobs (288). High inflation resulted into health issues, education, and the shrinking of the national economy in general. The root causes of the crisis which led to the Fast Track Land Reform Programme from April 2000 up until 2010 lay in the failure of the1998 Donors Conference to assist the Zimbabwe Land Reform Programme; the British Government’s insistence on the willing-buyer-willing-seller principle of Land Reform as well as the rejection of the draft Constitution during the referendum, writes Dr Felix Muchemwa in his book The Struggle for Land in Zimbabwe (1890-2010) that The Patriot is serialising. approximately 1 312 738 voters out of the over Most coverage of Zimbabwe’s land reform insists that agricultural production has almost totally collapsed, that food insecurity is rife, that rural economies are in precipitous decline and that farm labour has all been displaced. My topics about Africa focuses on an aid-free Africa relying on trade, tourism, innovation, and technology. There were persistent shortages of hard and fiat currency, fuel, medicine, and food. But conditions were put on the way that the money handed over could be used. Therefore, the government established “Operation Murambatsvina” in order to solve disorder in the cities by focusing on focusing on illegal housing, and informal jobs. He attributed the crisis as a result of the lack of democratic and a collection of human rights violations of the regime and dictatorship towards its own people (Raftopoulos, 208). Due to the injustice and unfairness of this so called, “restoring order operation”, people’s health was severely compromised. “Discriminatory laws can quickly lead to institutionalising racial discrimination. Planned Growth: Land reforms will enable to bring about a close integration of agricultural economy with the planning process of the country. European settler-farm workers had also been easily mobilised by the European settlers to vote ‘No’. The previously large exports of industrial crops such as tobacco, cotton, soya and horticultural production consequently reduced dramatically and the income derived from these sources couldn’t significantly contribute to the national economy anymore (216). 32, No. High inflation resulted into health issues, education, and the shrinking of the national economy in general. THAT the Donors Conference of September 1998 had been a total failure is a position the Zimbabwe Government easily accepted. Their research provides us credible information because they collected data from NGO’s and agencies that researched on the land distribution issues for about 20 years. Although I am a trained Energy Engineer, my passion is in business and entrepreneurship. The Government of Zimbabwe was not discouraged by the unfavourable outcome of the Donors Conference. By eliminating illegal housing and informal jobs in the capital of the country, Harare, the government of Zimbabwe thought that it would restore the order in their city. Although few people are happy with the way that land reform was implemented in Zimbabwe, it has presented an opportunity for a more just system of land distribution. In each of these countries the process of land reform is incomplete. Reform and Resettlement Programme: April 2000 Kinyarwanda, English, and French. Therefore, these farmers could not maintain the intensive and industrialized farming of the white owners. (Stiff, 2000: p.338) land is the slogan encouraging land reform in Zimbabwe (Mugabe, 2001). 10 to 15 % of the urban population in the HDAs was identified as poor, but they had access to potable water and electricity (Potts, 274). The land reform in Zimbabwe was organised in line with that slogan and had the following basic elements of speed, which made it to be known as the ‘fast track’ land reform. ( Log Out / § Speeding up the identification for … This will facilitate the government to implement plan for agricultural development in a smooth manner. (Moyo p.311-30) ( Log Out / Given the fertile and productive land the white farmers had along with the booming agricultural production in terms of tobacco, cotton and maize, all cash crops, very few farmers were willing to sell to the government for land redistribution. Initially, this operation established to demolish informal settlements and informal employment in cities ended up sinking Zimbabwe into an economic depression. From Rwanda (my home country), to the United States (my adoptive country), and Europe, where I am currently working, I take the Rwandan and African pride with me. The outcomes of “the operation Murambtsina” were so catastrophic that the world had difficulty interpreting its negative impacts on the population. I was born and raised in Rwanda. You ca fact -check it if you like. A number of reforms were implemented over the years, with corresponding modifications to the law and redistribution targets. Raftopoulos points out that because of its influence of the ruling party in the liberation struggle that lead to the independence of Zimbabwe in the 1980’s, ZANU PF, has used that pride to represent itself as the only protector of “national interest, patriotism, and authenticity” (212). In order to do make this possible, private companies buy land to the government, and then, the government negotiates with the population on the prices of their property to receive compensation according to current costs of materials and labor. During their research, these authors found other unfair factors that pushed the government to embark on this policy such as punishing followers of the opposition party, MDC, for voting against the ruling party, ZANU PF. While well aware that without donor assistance, such massive land acquisition could not be carried out legally without further amendments to the Lancaster House Constitution, Government still maintained its target of 5 000 000 hectares to be compulsorily acquired for resettlement within five years. I have checked your didierchampion.com and i see you’ve got some duplicate content so Fast track to land reform. This of course meant the President of Zimbabwe or his ministers. Zimbabwe is not the only country that has recently had to deal with urban land reform. In his paper, “The Zimbabwean Crisis and the Challenges for the Left”, published in the Journal of Southern African studies, Brian Raftopoulos analyzed the Zimbabwean crisis by setting up and combining historical aspects of land distribution from the 1980’s from various authors to show how the authoritarian regime of Robert Mugabe, the president of Zimbabwe, has played a major role in implementing policies that ravaged the economic growth of Zimbabwe since its independence. My thougts about Rwanda and Africa today and tomorrow. According to the World Bank and IMF, from 2000 to 2007, the national economy of Zimbabwe contracted by as much as 40% and inflation was extremely high. For more, follow me on twitter and follow this blog to stay in touch. According to the state, this drastic policy was necessary to eradicate illegal housing and informal employment, but given the economic stability of a developing country like Zimbabwe, there is no doubt that there were other reasons behind some economic and political. In this way, as the government negotiated with people and this created a level of freedom that Sen states in his theory. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Amartya Sen is an economist who won the Nobel Prize in 1998 for his contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, and for his interest in the problems of society’s poorest members. This resulted in a crisis where nearly 700, 000 people lost the basis of their livelihood: either their jobs, homes, or both. In order to deal effectively with this land reform policy and expropriation, policy makers need to establish strategies to fairly compensate those who are misplaced in order to increase opportunities and maintain development of the people. However, this policy worsened the quality of life in Harare. on Causes and Effects of Land reform policy and expropriation in Zimbabwe, The Google Boys: Larry Page and Serge Brin, Private Equity Investment Firms ( Role models), Introduction beyond Paper Policies: Planning Practice in Kigali. The Draft Constitution contained land clauses which demanded compulsory land acquisition without compensation. Among other reasons, the land reform lacked adequate government financial support, the new and inexperienced farmers failed to feed the nation, and the land question created enmity from the international community, which turned Zimbabwe into a pariah state. Land reforms need not be as dramatic in scale as Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe received financial assistance for land reform during the 1980s and 1990s from various governments. Thank you ( Log Out / By the middle of March 2000, villagers in Murehwa, Mutoko, Mudzi, Uzumba-Maramba-Pfungwe, all in the northern part of Mashonaland East Province, had risen in support of the war veterans and invaded European settler-farms close to their communal areas, in a measure meant to expedite land redistribution. In her paper, “Restoring Order, Operation Murambatsvina and the Urban Crisis in Zimbabwe”, Deborah Potts used results released by different agencies and non-governmental organizations through the ZNAC (Zimbabwe National Vulnerability Assessment Committee) and the PASS survey as well as other research centers to show ineffectiveness and the consequences of the operation and the associated injustice during its execution. Was severely compromised traveling across Africa, exploring the beauty of our continent and about. The vote against the Draft Constitution the master plan Speeding up the identification for … the politics land. 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